Basin Introduction :
Extensive deltaic plain formed by two large east coast rivers, Krishna and Godavari in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the 16adjoining areas of Bay of Bengal in which these rivers discharge their water is known as Krishna Godavari Basin. The Krishna Godavari Basin is a proven petroliferous basin of continental margin located on the east coast of India .Its onland part covers an area of 15000 sq. km and the offshore part covers an area of 25,000 sq. km up to 1000 m isobath. The basin contains about 5 km thick sediments with several cycles of deposition, ranging in age from Late Carboniferous to Pleistocene.
The major geomorphologic units of the Krishna Godavari basin are Upland plains, Coastal plains, Recent Flood and Delta Plains.
The climate is hot and humid with temperature reaching up to 42 degree C during summer. The mean day temperature varies between 35 C and 40 C during summer and 25 C and 30 C during winter.
Geological/ Geophysical Surveys
ONGC has carried out detailed geological mapping in the area covering 4220 sq. km since 1959. Geological map of Krishna Godavari Basin.
Gravity-Magnetic surveys, in onland part have been carried out by ONGC over an area of 19,200 sq. km. In offshore area, M/s. Prakla Seismos and GSI acquired the gravity-magnetic data for ONGC. Composite Bouguer gravity and composite magnetic anomaly map
Conventional single fold surveys were initiated in 1965 and upto 1973 about 2,690 line km of data was acquired. CDP surveys commenced in 1973 and so far about 34,642 Line Km. data with foldage varying from 6 to 48 have been acquired. ONGC has also carried out 2,325 Sq. Km. 3D seismic in onland area.
In offshore area, the first surveys of regional nature were carried out during 1964-65. These surveys were followed by multifold 2D / 3D seismic surveys, in shallow to deep waters and transition zone. As on 1st April 2005,(Figures of year 07-08 are to be taken instead of 2005 ) more than 74,753 Line Km. 2D and 26,508 Sq. Km. 3D seismic surveys have been carried out.
Additionally, during 1972-74, 2,028 km. Refraction data was acquired to study the basement configuration and also shallow reflectors.
More than 225 prospects have been probed by drilling of more than 557 exploratory wells. Hydrocarbon accumulations have been proven in 75 of these prospects (22 oil & 53 gas). Notable oil discoveries are Kaikalur, Vadali, Mori, Bantumilli, Lingala, Suryaraopeta, Gopavaram, Kesanapalli, and Kesanapalli West. The gas discoveries are Adavipalem, Elamanchili, Enugupalli, Narsapur, Razole, Tatipaka-Kadali, Pasarlapudi, Mandapeta, Chintalapalli. Nandigama, Endamuru, Penumadam, Ponnamanda, Achanta, Mullikipalle, Magatapalli, Gokarnapuram, Kesavadasapalem, Lakshamaneshwaram, Rangapuram and Sirikattapalli.
In onshore, so far 141 prospects have been probed by 375 exploratory wells by ONGC, out of which 11 oil & gas pools and 31 gas pools have been discovered and most of them are on production. In offshore ,Sso far more than 84 prospects have been probed by 182 exploratory wells .
Hydrocarbon accumulations have been proved in 33 of these prospects (11 oil & gas and 22 gas prospects). About nineteen discoveries have been made by Pvt./JV companies so far in NELP blocks (Fifteen Dhirubhai discoveries by RIL in blocks KG-DWN-98/3 and KG-OSN-2001/2, three discoveries by Cairn Energy Pty. Ltd. (CEIL) in block KG-DWN-98/2 within Mio-Pliocene, 3 discovery by ONGC in the block KG-DWN-98/2 within Plio-Pleistocene sandstone of Godavari formation and one discovery by GSPC in block KG-OSN-2001/3 within Lower Cretaceous). To check the above the shallow and a deepwater discoveries.
Tectonic History :
Krishna Godavari Basin is a Continental passive margin pericratonic basin. The basin came into existence following rifting along eastern continental margin of Indian Craton in early Mesozoic. The down to the basement faults which define the series of horst and grabens cascading down towards the ocean are aligned NE-SW along Precambrian Eastern Ghat trend.
The geological history comprises of following stages:
- Rift Stage:The basin got initiated through rift / syn-rift tectonics between Permo-Triassic to Early Cretaceous and is essentially characterized by lagoonal to fluvial to occasionally brackish water sediments. The northeastern part of the present onland basin was part of an intra cratonic rift set up till Jurassic that constituted the southeastern extension of NW-SE trending continental rift valley slopping northward. The basin has been initiated through rifting during Permo-Triassic period.
- Syn Rift Stage: The early stage synrift sediments were deposited during early subsidence by tectonic fault systems. Basin subsidence continued along basement bound fault system accommodating synrift sediments of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous.
- Drift Stage:Rift to drift transition is marked by a southerly/ southeasterly tilt of the basin leading to widespread marine transgression during Cretaceous and deposition of marine shale sequence followed by onset of overall regressive phase during Late Cretaceous, represented by a deltaic sequence comprising Tirupati Sandstone with dominant arenaceous facies. During Maastrichtian-Danian, the basin experienced major volcanic activity (Razole Volcanism) covering 1600 sq. km. area and having span of 5.5 million years.
- Late Drift Stage:Initial soft collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and initiation of Matsyapuri-Palakollu fault appears to have greatly influenced the Paleogene and younger tectonic regiment and the consequent sedimentation pattern.
- Sediment induced Neogene tectonics: Increased gradients for the river systems and increased sediment load coupled with significant sea level falls during Neogene had triggered sediment induced tectonics in the shelf and slope parts of the basin creating highly prospective exploration locales. Some of the recent very significant discoveries in these settings had opened new hydrocarbon opportunities in the Krishna-Godavari basin and necessitated re-estimation of its hydrocarbon resource potential.
Generalized Statrigraphy :
In the northwestern and western margins of the basin, out crops of Achaean crystallines and sediments ranging in age from Late Permian to Pliocene are present. However, major part of the basin is covered by alluvium/sea. The geological map of the basin shows the details of outcrop belt .
The outcrop and sub-crop lithologic information has been gathered from a large numbers of wells drilled in the shelfal area and onland.
- The stratigraphy has been worked out.
- Litho – Stratigraphy Nomenclature.
Four distinct depositional systems have been recognized in Krishna Godavari basin. These are – Godavari delta system, Masulipatnam shelf slope system and Nizampatinam shelf –slope system and Krishna delta system.
The maximum thickness of the sediments in Krishna Godavari basin is around 5000 m. Controlling factor of the thick pile of sediments is presence of long linear Gondwana rift valley. Palaeontological evidences suggest a period of slow sedimentation and subsidence but changes in water depth during deposition.
- Tertiary Play : Principal Depositional Elements from Shelfal Staging Area to Basin-Plain
- Krishna Godavari Basin – Depositional Model of the Shallow Offshore
- Seismic section showing spread of Pliocene Channel- Levee complexes and Overbank deposits
Petroleum System :
Krishna-Godavari basin is a proven petroliferous basin with commercial hydrocarbon accumulations in the oldest Permo-Triassic Mandapeta Sandstone onland to the youngest Pleistocene channel levee complexes in deep water offshore. The basin has been endowed with four petroleum systems, which can be classified broadly into two categories viz. Pre-Trappean and Post-Trappean in view of their distinct tectonic and sedimentary characteristics. Seismic imaging of Pre-Trappean section poses problems in terms of data quality.
Source rich areas at different stratigraphic levels
- Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Cretaceous.
- Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Paleocene.
- Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Eocene.
Permo-Triassic Kommugudem-Mandapeta-Red Bed Petroleum System
This is the oldest known petroleum system in the basin.