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Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring System. SOFEC is a proven leader in the supply of both CALM and SALM terminals worldwide. SOFEC provides single-source turnkey design, construction and installation of marine terminals for a complete range of import / export applications. Refineries, petrochemical plants, power plants and transshipment facilities worldwide.
Our valued Clients depend on SOFEC Marine Terminals for the reliable transfer of crude oil, LPG, kerosene, jet fuel, heavy fuel oil and other products vital to the industry.
CALM refers to Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring. The CALM Buoy is a floating hull with a rotating head to which vessels can moor. The CALM buoy falls under the category of a Single Point Mooring (SPM) typically with a turntable positioned above the geostationary hull mounted on a roller bearing. Flexible large bore rubber hoses are used to connect the subsea pipeline to the hull. Similar floating hoses are employed when connecting the buoy to a tanker prior to transferring liquid hydrocarbons. Central to the main bearing is a product swivel which allows fluid to transfer between the geostationary hull and rotating turntable while the moored vessel weathervanes.
The primary benefit of a CALM Buoy over a SALM Buoy is ease of maintenance. The mechanical U-Joints of a SALM are removed, and the fluid swivel is located above the water surface. The vast majority of Marine Terminals installed since the mid 1990s have been CALM Buoys because of these design improvements.